Block diagram PIC16F84A IO pin.
Fig. 1

From SR Latch to Microcontroller I/O Pin Introduction

Other than voltage-current levels a CMOS OR, NOR, AND, NAND, XOR gates operate identically to their TTL cousins. Note: CMOS and TTL can't be directly connected to each other unless the same voltage without some form of level translation circuits. I'll be addressing that issue in other pages..

SR latch and inverter form D flip-flop.
Fig. 2

In my pages Tutorial NOR Gate SR Latch Circuits and Tutorial NAND Gate SR Latch Circuit I introduce how to use SN74LS02 NAND gates and SN74LS00 NAND gates respectively construct a basic digital flip-flop, SR latch, and D-flip-flop.

The above circuit in Fig. 2 is built from NAND or NOR gates. It's also called a one-bit data latch. While the internal construction differs the function is identical: store one bit of data when the voltage on the CLK pin changes.

If the Q output is HIGH then the !Q output is LOW and vice-versa. It will remember the last condition until changed or power is removed.

These flip-flop type circuits are the basis of all modern computers and micro-controllers. Modern micro-controllers have internal memory often flash for program storage, EEPROM, and static scratchpad RAM. Some require an external oscillator crystal.

All have programmable Input-Output pins. Fig. 1 illustrates a single I/O pin on a Microchip PIC16F84A. By writing binary data to specific static memory locations we setup hardware modules and configuration of the I/O pins.

Microchip PIC which stands for Peripheral Interface Controller have many variations from basic to super powerful. Can also be programmed in C or assembly through software known as MPLAB from Microchip.

Positive: price and flexibility.

Negatives: must be compiled and uploaded through a separate PIC programmer. The C in MPLAB is copyrighted (I think). I never use C on basic low end devices. I use assembly for that.

Assembly requires a lot of knowledge of the particular controller along with electronics. Not for beginners.

It uses three D-flip-flops similar to those constructed from NAND and NOR gates. Q1 and Q2 are MOSFETs or metal-oxide field effect transistors. They are voltage operated and in this case can "source" or "sink" 25 milliamps (mA) or 0.025 amps.

The configuration is known as Tri-State. The I/O pin can be HIGH, LOW, or floating (Hi-Z).

High current TTL driver circuit.
Fig. 3

While this is connected in a Tri-State configuration the following webpage introduces this circuit as a non-tri-state power driver or buffer circuit in Fig. 3. It also illustrates the concept of sink-source connections.

Know the concepts of sink and source!

See High current TTL Driver-Buffer Circuits.

As a quick note I'll assume a 5-volt circuit. A HIGH or binary 1 is 5-volts, a LOW or binary 0 is 0-volts. Current flow is assumed to be from positive to negative.

Also see the following on MOSFET transistor switches. Yes there are two basic types that differ by direction of current flow.

View all of my You Tube Videos
Also visit and subscribe to My YouTube Channel

Article List Assorted Subjects

What do UN climate experts say about climate change?

"Basically, it is a big mistake to discuss climate policy apart from the big issues of globalization. The climate summit... is not a climate conference, but one of the biggest business conferences since the Second World War ... But one has to be clear: we are effectively redistributing world wealth through climate policy. One has to free oneself from the illusion that international climate policy is environmental policy. This has almost nothing to do with environmental policy..."

See Climate Change Dogma About Money

Bartender and New York Democratic socialist Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez says:

"Fighting climate change will be 'the civil rights movement of our generation'. It's inevitable that we will create jobs. We can use the transition to 100 percent renewable energy as the vehicle to truly deliver and establish economic, social and racial justice in the United States of America."

I take them at their word.

Web site Copyright Lewis Loflin, All rights reserved.
If using this material on another site, please provide a link back to my site.